- Musical notesThe musical note is the fundamental building block in music. In school you probably learned that there are seven notes depending on the culture you grew up.CDEFGAB/DoReMiFaSolLaSi
- Piano Keyboard
If you look at a piano keyboard you will notice that there are white and black keys. The notes C, D, E, F, G, A, B only represent the white keys, so how are black keys named. In fact each has two names the good thing is that, for now, we don't care which name to use.
There are in reality twelve notes not sevenCC#/DbDD#/EbEFF#/GbGG#/AbAA#/BbB
(used in AT, CZ, DE, DK, EE, FI, HU, NO, PL, RS, SK, SI, SE)
(used in NL, and sometimes in Scandinavia after the 1990s, and Indonesia)
(used in IT, FR, ES, RO, Latin America, GR, IL, TR, LV and many other countries)
diesis/bemolle are Italian spelling
|Byzantine||Ni||Ni diesis||Pa||Pa diesis||Vu||Ga||Ga diesis||Di||Di diesis||Ke||Ke diesis||Zo|
|Pa hyphesis||Vu hyphesis||Di hyphesis||Ke hyphesis||Zo hyphesis|
|Ho (ホ)||He (ヘ)||Ei-he|
|Indian (Carnatic)||Sa||Shuddha Ri (R1)||Chatushruti Ri (R2)||Sadharana Ga (G2)||Antara Ga (G3)||Shuddha Ma (M1)||Prati Ma (M2)||Pa||Shuddha Dha (D1)||Chatushruti Dha (D2)||Kaisika Ni (N2)||Kakali Ni (N3)|
|Shuddha Ga (G1)||Shatshruti Ri (R3)||Shuddha Ni (N1)||Shatshruti Dha (D3)|
We have now created a simple model to represent a note. But so far the model only represents the note name. Music is all about sound, so we need to associate a sound value to each note. For the moment lets assume the sound value is an integer value starting in 0 and going up until 11. We call this sound value pitch.C = 0CSharp = 1DFlat = 1D = 2DSharp = 3EFlat = 3E = 4F = 5FSharp =GFlat = 6G = 7GSharp = 8AFlat = 8A = 9ASharp = 10BFlat = 10B = 11
We now have a model representing the twelve notes in Western music. But if you again visualize a piano keybord you notice that the piano keybord has more than twelve keys. In fact a modern piano has 88 keys.
Our model only supports twelve notes, so clearly we are missing something. The secret is that the piano has many repetitions of the same twelve notes. In music therminology a sequence of twelve notes is called an octave. The piano thus has several octaves. If you move up an octave you add twelve to the pitch value of a note if going down you subtract twelve to the pitch value. So it's the same note just with an higher or lower pitch.
Octaves in westerns music are named: Sub-Contra, Contra, Great, Small, One-Line, Two-Line, Three-Line, Four-Line, Five-Line and Six-Line.
Octaves can also be represented as numbers: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 The neutral octave, is the OneLine or 4 octave, meaning its the octave that does not change the note pitch.
Its usual to represent a note at an octave using the number notation for octaves so an A4 means an A note at OneLine octave.
Instruments have what is called a range. This is the number of octaves an instrument can play. When composing a song for an instrument the composer must be aware of the instrument range so that all notes can be played by the instrument.SubContra = 0Contra = 1Great = 2Small = 3OneLine = 4TwoLine = 5ThreeLine = 6FourLine = 7FiveLine = 8SixLine = 9
So a note has an immutable part (name and pitch) and a mutable part octave. Lets try to model this. The pitch is now dynamic depending on the immutable note pitch and the octave we want to play the note:
C D E F G A B : played from left to right, playing the white keys,
Visualize the group of two black keys: the white note just to the left of this group is the C,
The middle of the keyboard. There are many keys? Do not panic: start as indicated here, to play in the middle of the piano (E in black).